Prediction of swell pressure in Neogene clays from Warsaw, based on the swell index
Keywords:Neogene clays, expansiveness, swell pressure, swell index
The paper presents the results of swell measurements of Neogene clays (Posnanian clay) from the Mazovia region with different grain size distribution and mineral composition. The study was conducted with model soil with initial moisture contents of 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%. The basic physical properties of clays, their mineral composition and swelling parameters such as free swelling index and swelling pressure were determined. Free swell index was correlated to liquid limit, plasticity index, clay content and water content. A very high fit was found for a proposed relationship between the free swell index and swell pressure which offers an inexpensive method of predicting swell pressure in the preliminary stages of site investigation.
ASTM D2487-11. Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes.
ASTM D 4546-14. Standard test Method for one-dimensional swell or collapse of soils.
Alexander D.E., 1993. Natural Disasters. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht.
Bandyopadhyay S.S., 1981. Prediction of swelling potential for natural soils. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, 107, 5, 658–691.
Brackley I.J., 1975. Swell under load. [in:] Pells P.J.N. & Robertson A.MacG. (eds.), Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering: Proceedings of the Sixth Regional Conference for Africa, Durban, 1975, A.A. Balkema, Cape Town, 65–70.
Carter M. & Bentley S.P., 2016. Shrinkage and Swelling Characteristics, in Soil Properties and their Correlations. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. DOI: 10.1002/9781119130888.ch8.
Chen F.H., 1988. Foundation on Expansive Soils. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Cokca E., 2002. Relationship between methylene blue value, initial soil suction and sweel percent of expansive soils. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Science, 26, 521–529.
El-Sohby M.A. & El-Sayed A.R., 1981. Some factors affecting swelling of clayey soils. Geotechnical Engineering, 12, 19–39.
Erzin Y. & Erol O., 2004. Correlations for quick prediction of swell pressures. The Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 9(F), 0476.
Erzin Y. & Erol O., 2007. Sweeling pressure prediction by suction method. Engineering Geology, 92, 133–145.
Erzin Y. & Gunes N., 2011. The prediction of swell percent and swell pressure by using neural networks. Mathematical and Computational Applications, 16, 2, 425–436.
Erzin Y. & Gunes N., 2013. The unique relationship between swell percent and swell pressure of compacted clays. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 72, 71–80.
Izdebska-Mucha D. & Wojcik E., 2015. Evaluation of expansivity of Neogene clays and glacial tills from central Poland on the basis of suction tests. Geological Quarterly, 59, 3, 593–602.
Johnson L.P., 1978. Predicting potential heave and heave with time in swelling foundation soils. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Technical report S-78-7.
Johnson L.P. & Snethen D.R., 1978. Prediction of potential heave of swelling soil. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 1, 3, 117–124.
Kaczyński R. & Grabowska-Olszewska B., 1997. Soil mechanics of the potentially expansive clays in Poland. Applied Clay Science, 11, 337–355.
Komornik A. & David D., 1969. Prediction of swelling pressure of clays. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 95, 1, 209–225.
Kościowko H. & Wyrwicki R., 1996. Metodyka badań kopalin ilastych. Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa.
Kumor M.K., 2008. Selected Geotechnical Problems of Expansive Clays in the Area of Poland. Architecture Civil Engineering Environment, 4, 75–92.
Kumor M.K., 2016. Iły ekspansywne podłoża budowlanego Bydgoszczy: wybrane problemy geotechniczne. Wydawnictwa Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Technologiczno-Przyrodniczego, Bydgoszcz.
McCormack D.E. & Wilding L.P., 1975. Soil properties influencing swelling in Canfield and Geeburg soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 39, 3, 496–502.
Nayak N.V., 1979. Foundation Design Manual. Dhanpat Rai and Sons, Delhi.
Nayak N.V. & Christensen R.W., 1971. Swelling characteristics of compacted expansive soil. Clays and Clay Minerals, 19, 251–261.
Nelson J.D. & Miller D.J., 1992. Expansive soils: problems and practice in foundations and pavement engineering. John Wiley, New York.
O’Neil M.W. & Ghazzally O.I., 1977. Swell potential related to building performance. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 103, 12, 1363–1379.
Piwocki M., 2002. Ewolucja poglądów na stratygrafię utworów formacji poznańskiej na Niżu Polskim. Przegląd Geologiczny, 50, 3, 255.
PN-88/B-04481. Grunty budowlane – Badania próbek gruntu. Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny, Warszawa.
Ranganatham B.V. & Satyanarayan B., 1965. A rational method of predicting swelling potential for compacted expansive clays. [in]: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Vol. 1, International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, London, 92–96.
Ruwaih I.A., 1987. Experiences with expansive soils in Saudi Arabia. [in]: Proceedings: 6th International Conference on Expansive Soils, 1–4 December 1987, New Delhi, India. Lectures, additional papers, general reports, The Board, 317–322.
Sabtan A.A., 2005. Geotechnical properties of expansive clay in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 25, 747–757.
Schneider G.L. & Poor A.R., 1974. The prediction of soil heave and swell pressures developed by expansive clay. Research Report, N TR-9-74. Construction Research Center, University of Texas.
Seed H.B., Woodward R.J. & Lundgren R., 1962. Prediction of swelling potential for compacted clays. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 88, SM3, 53–87.
Sridharan A. & Gurtug Y., 2004. Swelling behavior of compacted fine grained soils. Engineering Geology, 72, 9–18.
Sridharan A., Rao S.M. & Murthy N.S., 1985. Free Swell Index of Soils: A Need for Redefinition. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 15, 2, 94–99.
Sulewska M.J., 2010. Prediction models for minimum and maximum dry density of non-cohesive soils. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19, 4, 797–804.
Thakur V.K.S. & Singh D.N., 2005. Rapid determination of swelling pressure of clay minerals. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 33, 4, 1–7.
Vijayvergiya V.N. & Ghazzally O.I., 1973. Prediction of swelling potential of natural clays. [in:] Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Expansive Soils: Haifa, July 30-August 1, 1973. Vol. 1, Academic Press, 227–234.
Vijayvergiya V.N. & Sulvian R.A., 1973. Simple technique for identifying heave potential. [in:] Proceedings of Workshop on Expansive Clays and Shales in Highway Design and Construction, December 13–15, 1972. Vol. 1, University of Wyoming, Laramie,149–154.
Wierzbicki J. & Radaszewski R., 2016. O specyfice parametru gruntowego w badaniach geologiczno-inżynierskich. Przegląd Geologiczny, 64, 9, 694–700.
Williams A.A.B. & Donaldson G.W., 1980. Buildings on expansive soil in South Africa: 1973–1980. [in:] Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Expansive Soils: Stouffer’s Inn, Denver, Colorado, June 16–18, 1980. Vol. 2, ASCE, New York, 834–844.
Yilmaz I. & Yuksek G., 2009. Prediction of shear strength and elasticity modulus of gypsum using multiple regression, ANN, and ANFIS models. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 46, 803–810.
Zumrawi M.M.E., 2012. Prediction of swelling characteristics of expansive soils. Sudan Engineering Society Journal, 58, 2, 55–62.
How to Cite
The content of the journal is freely available according to the Creative Commons License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)