Geology, Geophysics and Environment https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol <p style="text-align: justify;"><img style="float: left; margin-right: 15px; margin-bottom: 5px;" src="https://journals.agh.edu.pl/public/site/images/admin/geology-logo1.jpg" alt="gge" width="200" height="301" /> The Geology, Geophysics and Environment Journal is published by the AGH University of Science and Technology; Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Krakow Poland. The Editorial Board consists of many renowned scientists representing different branches of geology and environmental sciences. The Journal was previously published under the title of Geologia Kwartalnik AGH (AGH Geology Quarterly). The first issue of the Journal was published in 1974, and 38 volumes (near 150 issues) have been published until now. In 2012 the title was changed into Geology, Geophysics and Environment.</p> AGH University of Science and Technology en-US Geology, Geophysics and Environment 2299-8004 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencja Creative Commons" /></a><br /><br /></p><p>The content of the journal is freely available according to the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a></p> Seismic stratigraphic analysis for hydrocarbon exploration in the Beta Field, Coastal Swamp Depobelt, Niger Delta https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/3674 <p><span style="left: 210.032px; top: 591.968px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.967307);">Hydrocarbon exploration analysis from a seismic stratigraphic approach was carried out within the </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 611.635px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01879);">Beta Field, Coastal Swamp Depobelt, Niger Delta, to identify system tracts and sequence boundaries that could </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 631.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01969);">be associated with potential hydrocarbon accumulation. 3D seismic volume and data from four wells were ana</span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 650.968px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03023);">lyzed. Depositional sequences, system tracts, sequence boundaries, and candidate maximum flooding surfaces </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 670.635px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953206);">were picked from logs, while reflection patterns and terminations were interpreted from seismic sections. Log </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 690.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00091);">shapes from gamma rays in combination with seismic facies analysis were interpreted in order to delineate lithology</span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 709.968px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02568);">, depositional environments and depositional sequences. Seismic attributes were extracted and were draped </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 729.635px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02494);">on gridded surfaces from the interpreted seismic horizons. These were integrated with structure maps to obtain </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 749.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02094);">structural and stratigraphic trends, and the possible presence of reservoir sand. </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 768.968px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01196);">Five depositional sequences and nine seismic facies were identified within the field. The depositional sequences </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 788.635px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01615);">were designated Sequences S1 to S5 based on the depth of the occurrences and stacking patterns. This study reveals</span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 808.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992531);"> a progression from fluvial depositional settings to the shelf. The main reservoirs identified are the sand units </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 827.968px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02648);">of the highstand and lowstand within three depositional sequences (S1, S4 and S5) although interbedded sands </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 847.635px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.991341);">within the TST of S4 and S5 are also suspected of being potential reservoirs. The channel sand deposits within the </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 867.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03321);">study area are suspected to be hydrocarbon bearing as they occurred within the complex fault trapping system </span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 886.968px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992827);">popular in the Niger Delta. The application of seismic stratigraphy, as shown in this study, serves to encourage exploration</span><span style="left: 141.716px; top: 906.635px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0024);"> in the Niger Delta where it could be effectively employed for reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration.</span></p> Mutiu Adesina Adeleye Kazeem Oladayo Yekeen Sikiru Adetona Amidu Copyright (c) 2021 Geology, Geophysics and Environment 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 46 4 259 271 10.7494/geol.2020.46.4.259 A determination of areas of biocorrosion development on the route of a main gas pipeline in the Western region of Ukraine https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/3854 <p> A determination of soil corrosivity on three sections of a main gas pipeline in the Western region of Ukraine has been carried out. We have distinguished areas of development of biocorrosive processes with the participation of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Soil evaluation by the degree of corrosivity has been conducted. We used weight, titrimetric, gravimetric methods, pH-metry, ten-fold limit dilution method and Postgate nutrient medium B for culturing SRB. It has been established that the soil in the first area selected along the lower generatrix of the main gas pipeline has a high degree of corrosivity. It was ascertained that corrosive metal damage increases in the “ferrozone” with the growth of metal exposition time from 24 to 72 hours. The soil selected in the middle part and from above the pipeline refers to soils with a normal degree of corrosive activity. Innovative biostable insulating coatings based on bituminous-polymerous mastic MBPID-1 have been developed, modified with organic inhibitors from the class of quaternary ammonium salts and amines. Regularities of influence of nature of nitrogen-containing corrosion inhibitors of industrial production M, N, L, H and K on the corrosion rate of 17G1S steel for 180 days have been established. It was found that the corrosion rate of steel specimens remained unchanged throughout the study in variants with the presence of inhibitors H and K in the test systems, which indicated their bioresistance to the effect of SRB bacteria.</p> Myroslava Polutrenko Yevstakhiy Kryzhanivs’kyy Yaroslav Fedorovych Copyright (c) 2020 Geology, Geophysics and Environment 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 46 4 273 283 10.7494/geol.2020.46.4.273 Statistical evaluation of the geochemical data for prospecting polymetallic mineralization in the Suoi Thau – Sang Than region, Northeast Vietnam https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4021 <p><span style="left: 208.949px; top: 696.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01481);">In Northeast Vietnam, Suoi Thau-Sang Than is considered as a high potential area of polymetallic deposits</span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 716.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00072);">. 1,720 geochemical samples were used to investigate polymetallic mineralization; thereby polymetallic ore </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 736.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00543);">occurrences in this study region were discovered and the statistical and multivariate analysis helps to define geochemical</span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 756.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.943871);"> anomalies in some northeastern regions, namely Suoi Thau, Sang Than, and Ban Kep. <br />The statistical </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 776.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02494);">method and cluster analysis of geochemical data indicate that the Cu, Pb, and Zn elements are good indicators, </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 796.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.95831);">and most of them comply with the lognormal or gamma distribution. Based on the third-order threshold, the </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 816.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0022);">geochemical anomalies of the content of the Cu, Pb, and Zn elements reflect the concentration of copper forming </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 836.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01487);">ore bodies in the mineralized zone, and clearly show the concentration in three distinct zones. The trend surface </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 856.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02192);">analysis which was employed to determine spatial variations and relationships among these good indicator elements</span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 876.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03337);"> and anomalous areas revealed relative changes in the content of the indicator elements, and they can be </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 896.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02548);">considered as regular. Moreover, the goodness of fit obtained trend functions of Pb and Zn, and Cu elements is </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 916.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03083);">a third-degree trend surface model. These results indicate that the models can be useful in studying geochemical</span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 936.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00535);"> anomalies and analyzing the tendency of the concentration of indicator elements in the Suoi Thau-Sang Than </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 956.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03082);">region. Additionally, it is suggested that the statistical analysis shows a remarkable potential to use the bottom </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 976.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01157);">river sediments in the region to investigate polymetallic mineralization. Moreover, geochemical data can help to </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 996.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99749);">evaluate geochemical anomalies of the pathfinder elements and potential mineral mapping of the Suoi Thau-Sang </span><span style="left: 141.749px; top: 1016.3px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02869);">Than region in Northeast Vietnam.</span></p> Khuong The Hung Pham Nhu Sang Nguyen Phuong Vu Thai Linh Bui Viet Sang Copyright (c) 2020 Geology, Geophysics and Environment 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 46 4 285 299 10.7494/geol.2020.46.4.285 The application of volume texture extraction to three-dimensional seismic data – lithofacies structures exploration within the Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4081 <p><span style="left: 204.982px; top: 614.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.943109);">There are numerous conventional fields of natural gas in the Carpathian Foredeep, and there is also </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 634.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02399);">evidence to suggest that unconventional gas accumulations may occur in this region. The different seismic sig</span><span style="left: 891.699px; top: 634.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 654.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01749);">natures of these geological forms, the small scale of amplitude variation, and the large amount of data make the </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 674.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00669);">process of geological interpretation extremely time-consuming. Moreover, the dispersed nature of information in </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 694.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01156);">a large block of seismic data increasingly requires automatic, self-learning cognitive processes. Recent developments</span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 714.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00779);"> with Machine Learning have added new capabilities to seismic interpretation, especially to multi-attribute </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 734.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01012);">seismic analysis. Each case requires a proper selection of attributes. In this paper, the Grey Level Co-occurrence </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 754.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01038);">Matrix method is presented and its two texture attributes </span><span style="left: 531.127px; top: 754.085px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.96554);">Energy</span><span style="left: 577.249px; top: 754.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.995756);"> and </span><span style="left: 609.507px; top: 754.085px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983376);">Entropy</span><span style="left: 661.666px; top: 754.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00658);">. Haralick’s two texture parameters </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 774.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998032);">were applied to an advanced interpretation of the interval of Miocene deposits in order to discover the subtle geological</span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 794.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00503);"> features hidden between the seismic traces. As a result, a submarine-slope channel system was delineated </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 814.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00181);">leading to the discovery of unknown earlier relationships between gas boreholes and the geological environment. </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 834.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993094);">The Miocene deposits filling the Carpathian Foredeep, due to their lithological and facies diversity, provide excellent</span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 854.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01947);"> conditions for testing and implementing Machine Learning techniques. The presented texture attributes are </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 874.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999405);">the desired input components for self-learning systems for seismic facies classification.</span></p> Mariusz Łukaszewski Copyright (c) 2020 Geology, Geophysics and Environment 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 46 4 301 313 10.7494/geol.2020.46.4.301 Instruction for the autors https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4164 <p>-</p> - Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 46 4 321 321 List of the reviewers https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4170 <p>-</p> - Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 46 4 323 323 Front page https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4171 <p>-</p> - Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 46 4 256 256 Editorial page https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4173 <p>-</p> - Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 46 4 257 257 Table of contents https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4174 <p>-</p> - Copyright (c) 2021 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 46 4 258 258 Portable XRF spectrometer with helium flow as a tool for lithological interpretation https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/4058 <p><span style="left: 208.099px; top: 516.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987436);">Portable EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence) spectrometer with the ability to perform rock </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 536.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953839);">tests in a helium atmosphere was applied to prepare unique calibration coefficients and mineralogical models. </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 556.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01262);">These data could be used for the chemical profiling, chemostratigraphy, gamma-ray, TOC and lithological interpretation</span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 576.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987471);"> of borehole geological profile. The measurements were conducted on 19 samples of sandstones and com</span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 596.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01475);">pared to the XRF data without helium flow. The acquired dataset was calibrated to the chemical laboratory tests </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 616.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0273);">(ICP-MS), gamma-ray spectrometry measurements (RT-50) and combined with the mineralogical data (XRD). </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 636.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00303);">The new methodology enables the measurement of sodium and enhances the possibility of detecting magnesium, </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 656.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03127);">thorium and uranium, compared to standard handheld XRF spectrometers. The applied method is dedicated to </span><span style="left: 141.732px; top: 676.301px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.011);">whole cores (without sample preparation) or cuttings which must be cleaned, dried, milled and pressed. </span></p> Rafal Skupio Copyright (c) 2020 Geology, Geophysics and Environment 2021-01-29 2021-01-29 46 4 315 320 10.7494/geol.2020.46.4.315