Geology, Geophysics and Environment <p style="text-align: justify;"><img style="float: left; margin-right: 15px; margin-bottom: 5px;" src="" alt="gge" width="200" height="301" />Geology, Geophysics and Environment (eISSN: 2353-0790; ISSN: 2299-8004) is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal. There is no charge to authors for the article processing.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Geology, Geophysics and Environment publishes original papers, articles and notes from the Earth and Environmental Science field. The journal was previously published under the title of Geologia Kwartalnik AGH (AGH Geology Quarterly). The first issue of the journal was published in 1974. In 2012 the title was changed into Geology, Geophysics and Environment.</p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Licencja Creative Commons" /></a><br /><br /></p> <p>Authors have full copyright and property rights to their work. Their copyrights to store the work, duplicate it in printing (as well as in the form of a digital CD recording), to make it available in the digital form, on the Internet and putting into circulation multiplied copies of the work worldwide are unlimited.</p> <p>The content of the journal is freely available according to the <a href="">Creative Commons License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a></p> (Urszula Aleksander-Kwaterczak) (AGH University of Science and Technology Press) Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Geochemistry indices and biotests as useful tools in the assessment of the degree of sediment contamination by metals <p>Ecological and geochemical indicators have been widely accepted as tools with the potential for rapid risk assessment of metal contamination of bottom sediments. In this study, we propose a selection of such indicators to characterize the potential ecological risks stemming from metal contamination of the bottom sediments of the Chechło reservoir (S Poland). The Chechło reservoir is located in an area formerly occupied by zinc and lead ore mining and processing industry. High amounts of metals, especially zinc (39.37–4772.00 mg/kg d.m.), cadmium (0.37–21.13 mg/kg d.m.) and lead (4.50–434.49 mg/kg d.m.) have been found in the bottom sediments. Both geochemical (CD – contamination degree) and ecological indices (mean PECQ) were indicative of bottom sediment contamination and their potential toxicity to living organisms. Most of the bottom sediment samples (71%) examined were toxic for Heterocypris incongruens, while only 9% of the samples were toxic to Sinapis alba. However, no significant correlations between the metal content and the response of the test organisms were observed. Correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) showed that silt and clay fractions were the key factors influencing the metal content in the sediments. Our study makes a contribution to building evidence of the need to integrate several indices for the assessment of environmental risks related to the presence of metals in bottom sediments rather than relying on a single one.</p> Tomasz Koniarz, Marek Tarnawski, Agnieszka Baran Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 24 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Glacial geomorphology and Pleistocene glacier reconstruction in the Demänovská Valley, Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia <p>In the Western Carpathians, clear evidence of the Pleistocene glaciations only occurs in two mountain massifs – the Tatra and Low Tatra Mountains. The Low Tatra Mountains (2043 m a.s.l.), contrary to the higher and more strongly glaciated Tatra Mountains (2654 m a.s.l.), have previously been much less attractive for scientific research. Hence, in these mountains, both glacial landforms and chronology, together with a detailed reconstruction of glacier geometry and resulted equilibrium line altitude (ELA), are poorly documented. The aim of this paper is to characterize the glacial relief and reconstruction of geometry and ELA of the Zadná voda glacier in the Demänovská Valley system which belongs to the category of the largest Pleistocene glaciers on the northern slope of the Low Tatra Mountains. The mapping results show that a freshly shaped, massive terminal moraine of maximal ice extent (MIE, likely formed during the global Last Glacial Maximum – LGM) occurs 4.3 km distance down-valley from the glacial cirque backwalls. There is no evidence of deposits from older glaciations beyond the terminal moraine down the valley. The terminal zone of the MIE features a fresh morainic landscape with hummocky topography with kettle hollows and the only known morainic lake in the Low Tatra Mountains – Vrbické pleso. During the MIE, the Zadná voda glacier covered 7 km<sup>2</sup> of the area and featured a mean thickness of 48 m. The ELA of this glacier was 1433 m, determined by the area-altitude balance ratio (AABR) 1.6 method, which is a similar value to the LGM ELA calculated in the Western Tatra Mountains. The recessional stages were only recognized in the cirques area, where one or two generations of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers mark the final deglaciation of the study area.</p> Agata Pyrda Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 14 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0100 An updated earthquake catalog for Bangladesh: an attempt at a seismic risk evaluation <p>A unique, consistent, and uniform earthquake catalog is crucial for assessing seismic hazards in any locality. This study aims at compiling and processing a better uniform earthquake catalog, using this catalog to identify the probable subduction zone, and assessing seismicity parameters for Bangladesh. The study area is bounded by the geographical limits 16–29°N and 86–96°E. It includes a sum of 48,342 events which are compiled as 1.0 to 8.5 magnitudes (M<sub>W</sub>) and time period from 1548 to 2020 yrs. Uniformization is made between the body, surface wave, and moment magnitude scales to unify the catalog in terms of M<sub>W</sub>. For seismic hazard assessment or prediction studies, this catalog comprises earthquake events from Bangladesh and adjoining regions. The assessed M<sub>C</sub> obtained is around 4.0–5.0, which leads to <em>a</em>, <em>b</em> value varying between 0.71–1.12 and an <em>a</em> value varying between 4.85–7.12. The findings show that the M<sub>C</sub> is lower at the border of the Chittagong-Sylhet through Hill tracts than the northern part of the area with an M<sub>C</sub> 4.5–5.0 and <em>a</em>, <em>b</em> value close to 1.00. The results indicate that the study area is a seismically highly active zone in the context of seismicity parameters. Finally, the compiled catalog, seismicity of the area and a probable deformation front are presented and are recommended for use in assessing seismic hazard analysis in Bangladesh.</p> Md Abdullah Salman, Md Saleh Shakeel Nomaan, Ayon Saha Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 20 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The fluid flow modeling procedure including a critically stressed fracture analysis of coalbed methane reservoir: a case study of Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland <p>The geomechanical modeling turned out to be an essential component of the hydrocarbon exploration assisting reduction of risk of drilling issues and optimization of hydraulic fracturing treatment. This study provides a workflow of critically stressed fracture (CSF) analysis dedicated for coal layers. The main focus of the paper is applying the 1D mechanical models and following modelling of hydraulic fracturing treatment to describe the fracture behavior under the impact of the stresses at the wellbore scale. Another objective of the presented study is demonstration of benefits of 1D and 3D CSF analysis to understand fracture contribution to gained volume of hydrocarbon after fracturing of coal seam. Interpretation of fracture orientation and their behavior is vital to effective development of coal bed methane (CBM) resources as the CSF can be responsible for considerable part of CBM production. Natural fractures and faults contribute to fluid flow through rock. It is often noted that natural fractures may not be critically stressed at ambient stress state. However, during stimulation, the optimally oriented natural fracture sets have the inclination to become critically stressed. Hence, understanding of the recent stress state and fracture orientations is significant for well planning and fracturing design. The outcome of this study are comprehensive 1D mechanical Earth models (MEMs) for analyzed wells and explanation of behavior of identified CSF under variable stress state as well as understanding of the connectivity of natural fractures within zone subjected to fracturing treatment.</p> Michał Kępiński, Paweł Ryder, Jacek Dudek, Daniel Podsobiński Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 14 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Assessment of the stability of mercury concentrations in municipal waste using data science tools <p>Mercury and its compounds are among the most dangerous and toxic substances in the environment. As part of the study, several exploratory analyses and statistical tests were conducted to demonstrate how low and stable mercury content is in municipal waste. A statistical analysis of the mercury content in waste (waste codes 19 12 12 and 20 03 01) was carried out using advanced IT tools. Based on 32 results for each waste, the maximum mercury concentration was 0.062 mg/kg dry weight (EWC code 19 12 12) and 0.052 mg/kg dry weight (EWC code 20 03 01). The analysis, data inference, and modeling were performed according to the CRISP-dm methodology. The results obtained were compared with the maximum allowable mercury concentrations for agricultural soils (2 mg/kg dry weight) and the provisions of the Minamata Convention (1 mg/kg). The average, median, and maximum observed mercury concentrations in waste are significantly lower than the assumed levels of 2 mg/kg (permissible concentrations for II-1 soils) and 1 mg/kg (Minamata Convention). The stability of mercury content in waste was examined. Descriptive statistics, statistical tests, and regression modeling were used. The tests and analyses performed showed an insignificant variation in the mercury content of the wastes with codes 19 12 12 and 20 03 01. No trend or seasonality was observed. The analyses and tests performed confirmed that the data are stable, and the values are low.</p> Radosław Jędrusiak, Monika Chuchro, Barbara Bielowicz, Agnieszka Gielar Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The use of algae to remove copper and lead from industrial wastewater <p>The aim of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the removal of Cu and Pb ions by algae. The experiments were carried out in the presence of two algal populations: a pure culture of <em>Raphidocelis subcapitata</em>, and a mixed chlorophyta population. The research involved a model study, experiments in the presence of wastewater from the manufacture of batteries, and the study of process kinetics. The wastewater pH was 4.0, and the initial concentrations of metal ions in the wastewater were 95.4 mg/L for Pb and 48.3 mg/L for Cu, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of the pure <em>Raphidocelis subcapitata</em> culture was 14.8 mg/g d.m. for Pb, corresponding to the removal of 72% of lead, and 6.1 mg/g d.m. for Cu, corresponding to the removal of 43% of copper from the wastewater. The best ion sorption efficiency in the case of the mixed chlorophyta population was 7.0 mg/g d.m. for Pb, i.e., 61% removal of lead, and 12.8 mg/g d.m. for Cu, i.e., 69% removal of copper ions from the wastewater. The optimum duration of the process was found to be 1 hour, since the majority of biomass samples reached the maximum saturation after that time. On the basis of the obtained results (Lagergren models), it was found that the dominant mechanism of the process was chemisorption.</p> Katarzyna Cygnarowska Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 21 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Front page <p>-</p> Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial page Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Table of contents Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Instruction for the authors Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0200