Geology, Geophysics and Environment <p style="text-align: justify;"><img style="float: left; margin-right: 15px; margin-bottom: 5px;" src="" alt="gge" width="200" height="301" />Geology, Geophysics and Environment (eISSN: 2353-0790; ISSN: 2299-8004) is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal. There is no charge to authors for the article processing.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Geology, Geophysics and Environment publishes original papers, articles and notes from the Earth and Environmental Science field. The journal was previously published under the title of Geologia Kwartalnik AGH (AGH Geology Quarterly). The first issue of the journal was published in 1974. In 2012 the title was changed into Geology, Geophysics and Environment.</p> <p> </p> <p>Web of Science's Journal Citation Reports<br />5-year Impact Factor: 0.9 <br />Impact Factor (2022): 0.8</p> en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Licencja Creative Commons" /></a><br /><br /></p> <p>Authors have full copyright and property rights to their work. Their copyrights to store the work, duplicate it in printing (as well as in the form of a digital CD recording), to make it available in the digital form, on the Internet and putting into circulation multiplied copies of the work worldwide are unlimited.</p> <p>The content of the journal is freely available according to the <a href="">Creative Commons License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a></p> (Urszula Aleksander-Kwaterczak) (AGH University of Science and Technology Press) Sat, 30 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Front page Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial page Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Table of contents Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Instruction for the authors Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Diurnal seismic ambient noise and seismic station performance characterization in the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh <p>Seismic ambient noise (SAN) energy can potentially blur regional and teleseismic arrivals as well as various microearthquakes at specific frequencies. Therefore, quantification of the SAN energy level in a region is required to optimize seismic station distribution for seismological investigations. Moreover, evaluation of station performance and noise source is possible from observation of SAN energy levels. The SAN energy distribution from seismic stations in the Bengal Basin (BB), Bangladesh has not yet been estimated. At the same time, this tectonically active and complex region is less studied using seismic methods. This study aims to quantify SAN energy and characterize its diurnal variation along with evaluating station performance at 11 seismic stations, which were temporarily installed in the deeper portion of the BB. Herein, the daily SAN energy level was determined within the period range of 0.02–30 s by estimating the power spectral density (PSD) of seismic data for 7 continuous days. SAN energy and its variation over time were observed using the probability density functions (PDFs) of PSDs and spectrograms, respectively. The sources of SAN energies at different period bands were also investigated by comparing the PSDs with daily variations in human activities, nearby noise sources, local meteorological factors (i.e., air temperature and precipitation), and sea level height. The insights from this study could be useful for the future deployment of seismic networks as well as seismological studies in the BB.</p> Naharin Zannat, Atikul Haque Farazi, ASM Maksud Kamal, Md. Zillur Rahman, Md. Shakhawat Hossain Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 15 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The development and origin of the two-stage silicification of Upper Jurassic limestones from the northern part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland (Southern Poland) <p>The Upper Jurassic carbonates representing the microbial-sponge megafacies in the area of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland (KCU) were locally silicified. In the reclaimed Lipówki Quarry, in Rudniki near Częstochowa (in the northern part of the Upland), macroscopically different silicification products were observed in blocks of Upper Jurassic limestones, deposited as mining waste. Two varieties were distinguished: (i) chert concretions representing the I silicification stage and (ii) light-brown, silicified limestones infilling the fractures in chert concretions or forming the cortices around the concretions or forming irregular bodies, all representing the II silicification stage. The diagnostic features are the following: (i) macroscopic development, (ii) the presence of moganite exclusively in chert concretions and (iii) significant differences in crystallinity index (CI) values, namely: 0.1–0.7 for chert concretions and 6.0–6.6 for silicified limestones. The formation of chert concretions was initiated as early as in unconsolidated sediment, whereas the II silicification stage followed the chemical compaction of the limestones. The results of geochemical analyses of the products of both silicification stages indicated that the probable source of silica were the low-temperature hydrothermal solutions. Two types of fractures were found in the chert concretions, generated during different tectonic events. The older, open fractures were formed during the extension of the Late Jurassic sedimentary basin, which formerly occupied the territory of the more recent KCU. These fractures were infilled with unconsolidated, fine-detrital carbonate sediment, in which the concretions were embedded and finally silicified in the II silicification stage. The younger, closed fractures, transversal to those filled by the products of II silicification stage, along which small displacements are evident, document the later tectonic deformations presumably related to Cenozoic faulting.</p> Alicja Kochman, Jacek Matyszkiewicz Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 01 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 An advanced ensemble modeling approach for predicting carbonate reservoir porosity from seismic attributes <p>This study uses a machine learning (ML) ensemble modeling approach to predict porosity from multiple seismic attributes in one of the most promising Main Dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs in NW Poland. The presented workflow tests five different model types of varying complexity: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), random forests (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGB), support vector machine (SVM), single layer neural network with multilayer perceptron (MLP). The selected models are additionally run with different configurations originating from the pre-processing stage, including Yeo–Johnson transformation (YJ) and principal component analysis (PCA). The race ANOVA method across resample data is used to tune the best hyperparameters for each model. The model candidates and the role of different pre-processors are evaluated based on standard ML metrics – coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE). The model stacking is performed on five model candidates: two KNN, two XGB, and one SVM PCA with a marginal role. The results of the ensemble model showed superior accuracy over single learners, with all metrics (R2 0.890, RMSE 0.0252, MAE 0.168). It also turned out to be almost three times better than the neural net (NN) results obtained from commercial software on the same testing set (R2 0.318, RMSE 0.0628, MAE 0.0487). The spatial distribution of porosity from the ensemble model indicated areas of good reservoir properties that overlap with hydrocarbon production fields. This observation completes the evaluation of the ensemble technique results from model metrics. Overall, the proposed solution is a promising tool for better porosity prediction and understanding of heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs from multiple seismic attributes.</p> Tomasz Topór, Krzysztof Sowiżdżał Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 06 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Malacological indicators of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes of the Podhale Basin during the last 2000 years. Studies in the Rogoźnik Stream valley (the Carpathian Mountains, Southern Poland) <p>The lithological and malacological studies covered sediments forming the low terrace of the Rogoźnik Stream in the northwest part of the Podhale Basin. This terrace is characterised by a uniform structure within a significant part of the valley. Three layers of gravel and four layers of sandy and silty muds were found there. A rich and diversified malacofauna was discovered in fine-grained sediments. Its analysis allowed us to characterise environmental conditions during sediment deposition. The age of the individual components of the sedimentary sequence was determined by radiocarbon dating. A distinct change was found in the upper intervals of the sequence, corresponding to the warm phase of the Medieval Climate Optimum. This period is associated with the robust development of agriculture, and processes related to human activities became the main factor shaping the environment, influencing the course of geological processes, and changing the taxonomical and ecological structure of the fauna and flora assemblages found in this area.</p> Witold Paweł Alexandrowicz, Sylwia Skoczylas-Śniaz, Paulina Laskowska Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 06 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Rock type discrimination using Landsat-8 OLI satellite data in mafic-ultramafic terrain <p>The mafic-ultramafic terrain of the Bhavani complex in southern India is considered for lithological mapping. The Landsat-8 OLI satellite data was used for the interpretation of different rock types in the study area. The satellite data were digitally processed using ENVI 5.6 image processing software. In the OLI data, excluding bands 8 and 9, the remaining seven bands were used for the generation of colour composite images, band ratios, principal component analysis and SVM classification. Reflectance spectral measurements were carried out in laboratory conditions for five rock samples collected from the study area. The XRF analysis was carried out to estimate the composition of major oxides present in the rock samples. The results obtained from XRF analysis were compared with the rock spectra in characterizing the spectral features of the rock types. The colour composite images (B543, B567, B456, and B457), PCA composite image (PC312 and PC456), band ratios (BR5/5 and BR4/3), colour composite images from band ratios, and SVM classified output are useful in delineation various rock types in the terrain.</p> Kuppusamy Tamilarasan, Siddan Anbazhagan, Sundararajan Ranjithkumar Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 12 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Astronium graveolens tree – mineral exploration guide in search for copper and potential use of this plant for reforestation of mining waste <p>Geological mapping and sampling of sediment-hosted copper-silver mineralization in NE Colombia identified the association of the <em>Astronium graveolens</em> tree (<em>Diomate Gusanero</em>) with the elevated presence of copper (up to 317 ppm) and silver (up to 24 ppm) in plant ash. During the dry season, when most plants lose their leaves, young <em>Astronium graveolens</em> seedlings growing along copper sulfide-rich showings retain their green foliage. This observation allowed authors to effectively use this plant as an exploration guide in search for copper mineralization and <em>Astronium graveolens</em> can be potentially considered as a geobotanical indicator plant. The observed resistance of <em>Astronium graveolens</em> to the presence of copper sulfides suggests that this tree could be also a potential excellent species for reforestation and reclamation of tailings and other mining waste.</p> Piotr Lutyński, Jadwiga Pieczonka, Adam Piestrzynski, Marvin Mosquera-Palacios, Alma Cristina Del Castillo-Londoño Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200