https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/issue/feed Geology, Geophysics and Environment 2023-12-21T11:34:16+01:00 Urszula Aleksander-Kwaterczak aleksa@agh.edu.pl Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><img style="float: left; margin-right: 15px; margin-bottom: 5px;" src="https://journals.agh.edu.pl/public/site/images/admin/geology-logo1.jpg" alt="gge" width="200" height="301" />Geology, Geophysics and Environment (eISSN: 2353-0790; ISSN: 2299-8004) is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal. There is no charge to authors for the article processing.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Geology, Geophysics and Environment publishes original papers, articles and notes from the Earth and Environmental Science field. The journal was previously published under the title of Geologia Kwartalnik AGH (AGH Geology Quarterly). The first issue of the journal was published in 1974. In 2012 the title was changed into Geology, Geophysics and Environment.</p> <p> </p> <p>Web of Science's Journal Citation Reports<br />5-year Impact Factor: 0.9 <br />Impact Factor (2022): 0.8</p> https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/6005 Front page 2023-12-20T12:02:43+01:00 2023-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/6007 Editorial page 2023-12-20T12:04:47+01:00 2023-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/6009 Table of contents 2023-12-20T12:10:39+01:00 2023-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/6008 The 1st National Scientific and Technical Conference “Hydroengineering, Hydromorphology, and Water and Sewage Management” 2023-12-20T12:06:28+01:00 2023-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/6010 Instruction for the authors 2023-12-20T12:12:58+01:00 2023-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/6011 List of the Reviewers 2023-12-20T12:14:55+01:00 2023-12-17T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/5398 Groundwater vulnerability to pollution in degraded coal mining areas: modifying the DRASTIC method using the factor of exploitation impact on land surface 2023-08-02T20:26:57+02:00 Ewa Krogulec ewa.krogulec@uw.edu.pl Przemysław Bukowski pbukowski@gig.eu Katarzyna Niedbalska kniedbalska@gig.eu Joanna Trzeciak j.trzeciak2@uw.edu Sebastian Zabłocki s.zablocki@uw.edu.pl <p>Mining activities such as underground exploitation of hard coal deposits and open cast mining are strong factors on groundwater depending on mine life cycle phases. The impact of coal mining activities on groundwater have been reported from many countries. In this case, a vulnerability assessment was conducted base on standard DRASTIC method and its modification DRASTIC MINE (DRASTICM) method. In order to take into account, the impact of mining activities, a new parameter was added which defined the impact of coal seams on the rock mass above, including the degree of its drainage and the range of its impact. In the standard DRASTIC method, the results indicate that groundwater vulnerability with high (38.6%) and very high occurrence classes (16.9% of the area), mostly covers the central part of the cast mine. In contrast, the reclaimed area of the excavation is a low-class area. The DRASTICM method increased the vulnerability index from 3 to 24 on 95% of the area, so a new vulnerability class of extremely high was delineated, which occurred in 1.6% of the area. This indicates areas that should be treated as a priority in order to avoid pollution, and in the final stage to plan activities in the field of the reclamation of mining areas. The results showed that groundwater vulnerability assessment in coal mining areas can be significantly improved.</p> 2023-11-07T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/5595 Investigating the content of microplastics and other extraneous particles in Polish bottled water 2023-08-31T17:58:33+02:00 Urszula Aleksander-Kwaterczak aleksa@agh.edu.pl Dominika Gaj dominika.gaj.40@gmail.com Alex Stelmach stelmach@agh.edu.pl Tomasz P. Wróbel tomek.wrobel@uj.edu.pl <p>Bottled water has enjoyed a global increase in popularity since it is generally perceived to be superior in quality to tap water and necessary when tap water is non-potable. As a result, ensuring that it meets the requisite quality standards is of vital importance. This work aims to examine the content of solid particles, including microplastics, in bottled water available in Polish stores. The second aspect is the preliminary determination of the influence of the water gassing process, together with thermal and light factors, on the content of particles in the water. The number of particles was counted by colour and shape, with the number ranging from 87 to 188 per litre of water; on average, there were 136 ±32 particles per litre of water, demonstrating that water from disposable plastic bottles is contaminated with various substances. The difference in the number of particles may be due to the origin of the waters, the processes they were subjected to prior to bottling, the properties of the bottles as packaging, and the conditions and length of storage and transport. Additional Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis confirmed that about 75% of the particles were polymers, and 50% of them were plastics. Particularly alarming is the fact that the bottled waters mostly contained microplastic particles (MP) of smaller sizes, the kind which is recognized as being the most dangerous to human health. In the study, most particles were in the form of irregular shapes, which may indicate that they come from the destruction of waste or plastic products. This is also indicated by the domination of colourless particles. More particles were found in waters exposed to high and low temperatures than in waters stored at room temperature, potentially indicating that storage conditions for drinking water are important. Taking into account the results obtained, increasing attention should be paid to the health risks posed by such microplastics and there is a clear need to introduce legal regulations on the matter. The lack of any legal guidelines or unified standards in the field of MP research means that the results are not always representative, and it also makes it difficult to compare the results from different studies.</p> 2023-11-17T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/5293 Theoretical aspects and numerical modelling of the GPR method to analyse its possibilities for the detection of leakages in urban water supply networks 2023-07-19T09:25:42+02:00 Tomisław Gołębiowski tomislaw.golebiowski@pk.edu.pl <p>Geophysical methods, especially selected electrical and electromagnetic ones, have been used for many years for the non-invasive detection of leakages from water supply networks. In this paper, the author focuses on theoretical aspects and numerical simulations to analyse the possibilities and limitations of the application of the selected electromagnetic method, i.e., the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for the aforementioned purpose. Various measurement techniques are used in the GPR method but in the paper the author refers to the most commonly used technique known as short-offset reflection profiling (SORP). As demonstrated in the paper, the detection of water leakages into a homogeneous and isotropic geological medium using the GPR method is a simple matter. However, the detection of leakages occurring in heterogeneous ground subjected to strong anthropopression and with the presence of electromagnetic interference becomes a difficult task, and interpretation may be difficult or even impossible. An important issue analysed in the paper was the phenomenon of the scattering of electromagnetic waves on underground anthropogenic objects, which very often occurs in urbanised areas. The results of the numerical modelling carried out for various scenarios of water leakages into typical ground allowed the possibilities and limitations of using the GPR method for the detection of leakages from water supply networks to be determined.</p> 2023-10-27T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/5317 Pollution load assessment in the form of TSS and COD emitted from an urbanized catchment in the aspect of administrative pollutant discharge fees on the example of the activity of the J1 CSO in Lodz (Poland) 2023-04-05T14:52:59+02:00 Agnieszka Brzezińska agnieszka.brzezinska@p.lodz.pl Lukasz Wiankowski kanea.projekt@gmail.com <p>The article presents the possibility of reducing fees for wastewater discharge from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) into the aquatic environment by minimizing the load emission of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The analysis was conducted based on limiting the wastewater volume discharged to the receiving water by one of the viable options, i.e., raising the overflow crest. The assessment was made on the example of the functioning J1 CSO in Lodz (in Polish: Łódź) in the years 2013–2015. An analysis of rainfall recorded in the J1 catchment area was also performed for this period. For the determination of the TSS and COD load emitted to the receiver, a predictive model based on rainfall parameters and the volume of discharged wastewater was used. To determine the wastewater volume emitted during individual activations of the J1 overflow, the model of the sewer network serving this catchment was calibrated in the EPA SWMM software. Simulations were conducted, considering different heights of the weir crest (static change). The results of the analyzes showed that raising the crest by 5 cm reduced the total fee for the J1 activity by 35% compared to its existing height in 2013 and about 40% for 2015. Raising the crest by 10 cm in 2015 enabled, for example, the J1 overflow activity to be in accordance with the applicable law. Reducing the amount of wastewater discharged to the receiver by using the overflow crest height adjustment method presented in the article may bring measurable financial and ecological benefits.</p> 2023-12-04T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/5314 Analysis of suspended solids emissions from a combined sewage system using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) 2023-04-05T15:05:58+02:00 Grażyna Sakson grazyna.sakson-sysiak@p.lodz.pl <p>The protection of water bodies requires the reduction of pollutant emissions from all major sources. In urbanized areas, these include: wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and (depending on the type of sewage system) combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage outlets. WWTPs are usually monitored and emitted pollutant loads are known, but it is more difficult to assess the pollutant load discharged by CSOs and stormwater drainage systems. The article attempts to use the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to assess emissions of suspended solids from a large urban combined catchment. Suspended solids are the main pollutant of stormwater runoff in urban areas, and the dynamics of their emission from catchments is very diverse. The amount of suspended solids discharged by CSOs functioning in the given city was assessed in comparison with emissions from a wastewater treatment plant. The results show that CSOs discharge a pollutant load to the receiver which is comparable to WWTPs, but in a much shorter time and in a violent manner which can lead to the severe deterioration of receiving water quality. The modelling took into account the quality of dry weather sewage, the build-up of suspended solids, wash-off processes in the catchment area, and local precipitation characteristics. Factors affecting the quality of the obtained model and the accuracy of the emission level assessment were analysed.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://journals.agh.edu.pl/geol/article/view/5321 An inventory of opencast mining excavations recultivated in the form of water reservoirs as an example of activities increasing the retention potential of the natural environment: a case study from Poland 2023-04-27T12:58:49+02:00 Anna Szafarczyk anna.szafarczyk@pk.edu.pl Rafał Gawałkiewicz gawalkie@agh.edu.pl <p>The article presents examples of the employment of various geodetic measuring tools used for a detailed inventory of lake basins and shorelines. The measurement and analysis covered three post-mining open pit excavations recultivated as water reservoirs: two in Krakow (Bagry Wielkie and Bagry Małe) and one in Piaseczno (Piaseczno Sulphur Mine). Attention was paid to the factors that reduce the accuracy of the inventory of some flooded post-mining excavations, which determine the degree of usefulness of the morphometric data set for later analyses. According to available estimates, only about one-third of all water reservoirs in Poland have detailed geodetic documentation in the form of bathymetric maps. This documentation usually does not include water reservoirs of anthropogenic origin formed after the flooding of post-mining excavations (mines: sand, gravel, clay, limestone, sulphur, aggregates, etc.). The authors suggest the introduction of a document known as a reservoir documentation card and the creation of a database covering all anthropogenic water reservoirs. Considering the water deficit in Poland, it may be necessary to develop a detailed database of water resources in the short term.</p> 2023-12-15T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023