A Reversible Data Hiding Scheme through Encryption using Rotated Stream Cipher





reversible data hiding, image encryption, image decryption, secure data transmission, medical image transmission


The research in the domain of reversible data hiding got much attention in recent years due to its wide applications in medical image transmission and cloud computing.  Reversible data hiding during image encryption is a recently emerged framework for hiding secret data into an image during the image encryption process. In this manuscript, we propose a new reversible data hiding through encryption scheme which will ensure a high embedding rate without bringing any additional overhead of key handling. The proposed algorithm can use any secure symmetric encryption scheme, and the encryption and/or decryption key should be shared with the receiver for data extraction and image recovery. As per the proposed scheme, the data hider can hide three-bits of secret message in an image block of size $B\times B$ pixels. The data extraction image recovery will be carried out by analyzing the closeness between adjacent pixels. The simulation of the new scheme on the USC-SIPI dataset shows that the proposed scheme outperforms the well-known existing schemes in embedding rate and bit error rate.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

V. M. Manikandan, SRM University AP, Andhra Pradesh, India

Dr. V. M. Manikandan is currently working as an Asst. Professor in Computer Science and Engineering at SRM University AP, Andhra Pradesh, India. He did his Ph.D. in Computer Engineering from Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Kancheepuram, Tamilnadu, India in 2018 after his M.Tech in Software Engineering from Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, India. He is an Associate Member of The Institution of Engineers (India). His current research focused on the design and development of reversible data hiding schemes in images, digital image watermarking and copy-move forgery detection from images.


Agrawal S., Kumar M.: Mean value based reversible data hiding in encrypted images. In: Optik-International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, vol. 130(2017), pp. 922-934, 2017.

Bender W., Butera W., Gruhl D., Hwang R., Paiz F.J., Pogreb S.: Applicationsor data hiding. In: IBM systems journal, vol. 39(3.4), pp. 547-568, 2000.

Celik M.U., Sharma G., Tekalp A.M., Saber E.: Reversible data hiding. In: Proceedings. International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. II-II. IEEE, 2002.

Chen X., Sun X., Sun H., Zhou Z., Zhang J.: Reversible watermarking method based on asymmetric-histogram shifting of prediction errors. In: Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 86(10), pp. 2620-2626, 2013.

Chen Y.C., Shiu C.W., Horng G.: Encrypted signal-based reversible data hiding with public key cryptosystem. In: Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 25(5), pp. 1164-1170, 2014.

Cox I., Miller M., Bloom J., Fridrich J., Kalker T.: Digital watermarking and steganography. Morgan kaufmann, 2007.

Fu D.S., Jing Z.J., Zhao S.G., Fan J.: Reversible data hiding based on prediction-error histogram shifting and EMD mechanism. In: AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 68(10), pp. 933-943, 2014.

Hong W., Chen T.S., Wu H.Y.: An improved reversible data hiding in encrypted images using side-match. In: IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 19(4), pp. 199-202, 2012.

Kim H.J., Sachnev V., Shi Y.Q., Nam J., Choo H.G.: A novel difference expansion transform for reversible data embedding. In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 3(3), pp. 456-465, 2008.

Klein A.: RC4 and related ciphers. In: Stream Ciphers, pp. 183-228. Springer, 2013.

Li M., Li Y.: Histogram shifting in encrypted images with public key cryptosystem for reversible data hiding. In: Signal Processing, vol. 130, pp. 190-196, 2017.

Manikandan V., Masilamani V.: Reversible Data Hiding Scheme During Encryption Using Machine Learning. In: Procedia computer science, vol. 133, pp. 348-356, 2018.

Manikandan V., Masilamani V.: A Novel Entropy-based Reversible Data Hiding during Encryption. In: 2019 IEEE 1st International Conference on Energy, Systems and Information Processing (ICESIP), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2019.

Manikandan V.M., Masilamani V.: An Improved Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Through Novel Encryption. In: 2019 Conference on Next Generation Computing Applications (NextComp), pp. 1-5. IEEE, 2019.

Ni Z., Shi Y.Q., Ansari N., Su W.: Reversible data hiding. In: IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, vol. 16(3), pp. 354-362, 2006.

Ou B., Zhao Y., Ni R.: Reversible watermarking using optional prediction error histogram modification. In: Neurocomputing, vol. 93, pp. 67-76, 2012.

Parah S.A., Ahad F., Sheikh J.A., Bhat G.M.: Hiding clinical information in medical images: a new high capacity and reversible data hiding technique. In: Journal of biomedical informatics, vol. 66, pp. 214-230, 2017.

Shi Y.Q., Li X., Zhang X., Wu H.T., Ma B.: Reversible data hiding: advances in the past two decades. In: IEEE access, vol. 4, pp. 3210-3237, 2016.

Shiu C.W., Chen Y.C., Hong W.: Encrypted image-based reversible data hiding with public key cryptography from dierence expansion. In: Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 39, pp. 226-233, 2015.

Thodi D.M., Rodriguez J.J.: Prediction-error based reversible watermarking. In: 2004 International Conference on Image Processing, 2004. ICIP'04., vol. 3, pp. 1549-1552. IEEE, 2004.

Thodi D.M., Rodrguez J.J.: Expansion embedding techniques for reversible watermarking. In: IEEE transactions on image processing, vol. 16(3), pp. 721-730, 2007.

Xiong L., Xu Z., Shi Y.Q.: An integer wavelet transform based scheme for reversible data hiding in encrypted images. In: Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 29(3), pp. 1191-1202, 2018.

Yin Z., Abel A., Tang J., Zhang X., Luo B.: Reversible data hiding in encrypted images based on multi-level encryption and block histogram modification. In: Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 76(3), pp. 3899-3920, 2017.

Zhang W., Wang H., Hou D., Yu N.: Reversible data hiding in encrypted images by reversible image transformation. In: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 18(8), pp. 1469-1479, 2016.

Zhang X.: Reversible data hiding in encrypted image. In: IEEE signal processing letters, vol. 18(4), pp. 255-258, 2011.

Zhang X.: Separable reversible data hiding in encrypted image. In: IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, vol. 7(2), pp. 826-832, 2011.

Zhang X., Long J., Wang Z., Cheng H.: Lossless and reversible data hiding in encrypted images with public-key cryptography. In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 26(9), pp. 1622-1631, 2015.




How to Cite

Manikandan, V. M. (2021). A Reversible Data Hiding Scheme through Encryption using Rotated Stream Cipher. Computer Science, 22(2). https://doi.org/10.7494/csci.2021.22.2.3843