• Prashant Parhad Associate Professor, Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science, Ramtek.
  • Ajay Likhite Associate Professor Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440011 (India).
  • Jatin Bhatt Associate Professor Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440011 (India).
  • Dilip Peshwe Professor Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440011 (India).




ADI, stabilized austenite, process window, EBSD, austempering


The present paper examines and compares the influence of austempering parameters such as temperature and time on the isothermal transformation and microstructural changes of ductile iron. To identify the compositional and structural changes during an isothermal transformation, a very wide austempering period is chosen at a transformation temperature for the precise determination of the process window. XRD, optical, and scanning electron microscopic techniques are exploited to identify and analyze the changes in the austempered structure, at austempering temperatures of 250°C and 400°C. The various structural parameters like austenite volume fraction (Vg, its carbon content (Cg), lattice parameter, and the average cell size of the ferrite are ascertained. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis is used to identify the carbide precipitation obtained due to the austempering Stage-II reaction. It is noticed that, at the end of the austempering Stage-II reaction, there is a significant reduction in the volume fraction of stabilized austenite and it’s carbon content, as the microstructure at this stage not only contains ausferrite but also additional precipitated iron carbides. With an increase in austempering time, the austenite and ferrite volume fraction increase until the austenite becomes stabilized with sufficient carbon. The increase in the lattice parameter of the austenite during austempering corresponds to the rise in carbon content within the austenite. A rise in the austempering temperature leads to a reduction in the volume fraction of the ferrite and an increase in the stabilized austenite volume fraction. The optimum isothermal transformation period for austempered ductile iron is established, based on the period during which the maximum content of the austenite volume fraction, its carbon, the lattice parameter, and the average cell size of the ferrite are maintained.


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How to Cite

Parhad, P., Likhite, A., Bhatt, J., & Peshwe, D. (2018). OPTIMIZATION OF ISOTHERMAL TRANSFORMATION PERIOD FOR AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON. Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering, 43(4), 313. https://doi.org/10.7494/mafe.2017.43.4.313