Stromboli – the best place to actively learn and understand the behavior of an active volcano and its processes // Stromboli – najlepsze miejsce do poznania aktywnego wulkanu i zrozumienia procesów wulkanicznych

Krzysztof Bąk, Marta Bąk, Mariusz Szubert

Abstract


Basaltic volcanism, a dominant mode of volcanic activity on Earth, occurs as explosive eruptions, resulting from the exsolution of magmatic gases and is exhibited by Strombolian and Hawaiian types. Strombolian activity takes its name from frequent, small-scale explosions of the Stromboli Volcano, which was formed within the Aeolian Islands, north of Sicily. This paper
presents the volcanic structure and features of its activity, based on the results of numerous studies carried out during the last 15 years. In the intention of the authors, this educational presentation would be an incentive to make a decision to travel to Stromboli and see its present-day activity and its effects from just a few hundred meters. To have a safe experience and to avoid accidents and injuries, the tourists need to have sufficient up-to-date information, before they embark on their adventure.

//

Wulkanizm bazaltowy (dominujący typ aktywności wulkanicznej na Ziemi), który jest związany z ekshalacją gazów pomagmowych, ma charakter eksplozywnych erupcji określanych mianem typu hawajskiego i strombolijskiego. Aktywność strombolijską charakteryzują częste, niewielkiej objętości wybuchy, które występują m.in. na czynnym wulkanie Stromboli, znajdującym się w łuku Wysp Liparyjskich (Eolskich), na północ od Sycylii. W artykule przedstawiono budowę wulkanu, jego działalność i przyczyny tej działalności na podstawie wyników licznych badań, przeprowadzonych w ciągu ostatnich 15 lat. W intencji autorów przedstawione w sposób możliwie prosty informacje, zdjęcia i ryciny tego wulkanu mają być materiałem edukacyjnym i jednocześnie zachętą do podjęcia decyzji o podróży, żeby z odległości kilkuset metrów móc samemu zobaczyć erupcje wulkaniczne. Aby poznawanie wulkanu było bezpieczne, turyści powinni zapoznać się z aktualnymi informacjami o warunkach panujących na ścieżkach turystycznych.


Keywords


the Aeolian Islands; basaltic volcanism; Strombolian activity; causes of eruptions; rocks and relief of volcano; accessible tourism; / Wyspy Liparyjskie (Eolskie); aktywność wulkaniczna typu Stromboli; przyczyny erupcji; skały i rzeźba wulkanu

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aiello G., Di Fiore V., Marsella E., Passaro S., 2014. High resolution seismic data coupled to Multibeam bathymetry of Stromboli island collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment: implications with the marine geophysics and volcanology of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex (Sicily, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Springer Plus, 3: 232. [doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-232].

Aiuppa A., Bertagnini A., Métrich N., Moretti R., Di Muro A., Liuzzo M., Tamburello G., 2010. A model of degassing for Stromboli volcano. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 295: 195–204.

Allard P., 2010. A CO(2)-rich gas trigger of explosive paroxysms at Stromboli basaltic volcano, Italy. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 189: 363–374.

Allard P., Carbonnelle J., Metrich N., Loyer H., Zettwoog, P., 1994. Sulfur output and magma degassing budget of Stromboli volcano. Nature, 368: 326–330.

Allard P., Aiuppa A., Burton M., Caltabiano T., Federico C., Salerno G., La Spina A., 2008. Crater gas emissions and the magma feeding system of Stromboli volcano. In: Calvari S., Inguaggiato S., Ripepe M., Rosi M. (eds), The Stromboli Volcano: An integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. American Geophysical Union – Geophysics Monograph Series, Washington DC, 182: 65–80 [doi: 10.1029/182gm07].

Barberi F., Rosi M., Sodi A., 1993. Volcanic hazard assessment at Stromboli based on review of historical data. Acta Vulcanologica, 3: 173–187.

Boccaletti M., Nicolich R., Tortorici L., 1984. The Calabrian arc and the Ionian Sea in the evolution of the central Mediterranean. Marine Geology, 55: 219–245.

Burton M., Allard P., Mure F., La Spina A., 2007. Magmatic gas composition reveals the source depth of slug-driven Strombolian explosive activity. Science, 317: 227–230.

Coppola D., Piscopo D., Laiolo M., Cigolini C., Delle Donne D., Ripepe M., 2012. Radiative heat power at Stromboli volcano during 2000–2011: Twelve years of MODIS observations. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 215–216: 48–60.

Cortes J.A., Wilson M., Condliffea T.E., Francalanci L., Chertkoff D.G., 2005. The evolution of the magmatic system of Stromboli volcano during the Vancori period (26–13.8 ky). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 147: 1– 38.

Delle Donne D., Marchetti E., Ripepe M., Ulivieri G., Lacanna G., 2006. Monitoring explosive volcanic activity using thermal images, Stromboli volcano, Italy. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2006 Abstracts, 79: 1795.

Di Roberto A., Bertagnini A., Pompilio M., Gamberi F., Marani M.P., Rosi A.M., 2008. Newly discovered submarine flank eruption at Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Geophysical Research Letters, 35. [doi: 10.1029/2008GL034824]

Di Roberto A., Rosi M., Bertagnini A., Marani M.P., Gamberi F., 2010. Distal turbidites and tsunamigenic landslides of Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). In: Mosher D.C., Shipp C., Moscardelli L., Chaytor J., Baxter C., Lee H., Urgeles R. (eds), Submarine mass movements and their consequences. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, Advances in Natural and Technological Hazard Research, 28: 719–732.

Falsaperla S., Lanzafame G., Longo V., Spampinato S., 1999. Regional stress field in the area of Stromboli (Italy): insights into structural data and crustal tectonic earthquakes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 88: 147–166.

Favalli M., Karatson D., Mazzuoli R., Pareschi M.T., Ventura G., 2005. Volcanic geomorphology and tectonics of the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy) based on integrated DEM data. Bulletin of Volcanology, 68: 157–170.

Francalanci L., Tommasini S., Conticelli S., Davies G.R., 1999. Sr isotope evidence for short magma residence time for the 20th century activity at Stromboli volcano, Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 167, 1–2: 61–69.

Francalanci L., Davies G.R., Lustenhouwer W., Tommasini S., Mason P.R.D., Conticelli S., 2005. Intra-grain Sr isotope evidence for crystal recycling and multiple magma reservoirs in the recent activity of Stromboli volcano, southern Italy. Journal of Petrology, 46: 1997–2021.

Francalanci L., Lucchi F., Keller J., De Astis G., Tranne C.A., 2013. Eruptive, volcano-tectonic and magmatic history of the Stromboli volcano (north-eastern Aeolian archipelago). Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 37: 397–471.

Gabbianelli G., Gillot P.Y., Lanzafame G., Romagnoli C., Rossi P.L., 1990. Tectonic and volcanic evolution of Panarea (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Marine Geology, 92: 313–326.

Gillot P.Y., Keller J., 1993. Age dating of Stromboli. Acta Vulcanologica, 3: 69–77.

Giordano G., Porreca M., 2009. Field observations on the initial lava flow and the fracture system developed during the early days of the Stromboli 2007 eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 182: 145–154.

Guest J., Cole P., Duncan A., Chester D., 2003. Volcanoes of Southern Italy. The Geological Society, Bath, UK.

Gurioli L., Colo L., Bollasina A.J., Harris A.J.L., Whittington A., Ripepe M., 2014. Dynamics of strombolian explosions: inferences from inferences from field and laboratory studies of erupted bombs from Stromboli volcano. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119: 319–345.

Harris A., Ripepe M., 2007. Temperature and dynamics of degassing at Stromboli. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 112. [doi:10.1029/2006JB004393]

Harris A.J.L., Delle Donne D., Dehn J., Ripepe M., Worden K., 2013. Volcanic plume and bomb field masses from thermal infrared camera imagery. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 365: 77–85.

Hornig-Kjarsgaard I., Keller J., Koberski U., Stadlbauer E., Francalanci L., Lenhart R., 1993. Geology, stratigraphy, and volcanological evolution of the island of Stromboli, Aeolian Arc, Italy. Acta Vulcanologica, 3: 21–68.

Jaupart C., Vergniolle S., 1989. The generation and collapse of foam layer at the roof of a basaltic magma chamber. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 203: 347–380.

Keller J., Hornig-Kjarsgaard I., Koberski U., Stadlbauer E., Lenhart R., 1993. Geological map of the island of Stromboli – scale 1 : 10,000. Acta Vulcanologica, 3, Pisa, Italy, Appendix.

Leduc L., Gurioli L., Harris A., Colò L., Rose-Koga E.F., 2015. Types and mechanisms of strombolian explosions: characterization of a gas-dominated explosion at Stromboli. Bulletin of Volcanology, 77: 8. [doi:10.1007/s00445-014-0888-5]

Mantovani E., Albarello D., Babbucci D., Tamburelli C., 1997. Recent/present tectonic processes in the Italian region and their relation with seismic and volcanic activity. Annales Tectonicae, 11(1–2): 27–57.

Maramai A., Graziani L., Alessio G., Burrato P., Colini L., Cucci L., Nappi R., Nardi A., Vilardo G., 2005a. Near- and far-field survey report of the 30 December 2002 Stromboli (Southern Italy) tsunami. Marine Geology, 215: 93–106.

Maramai A., Graziani L., Tinti S., 2005b. Tsunamis in the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy): a review. Marine Geology, 215: 11–21.

Marani M., Trua T., 2002. Thermal constriction and slab tearing at the origin of a superinflated spreading ridge: Marsili volcano (Tyrrhenian Sea). Journal of Geophysical Research, 107: 2188–2203.

Marsella M., Baldi P., Coltelli M., Fabris M., 2012. The morphological evolution of the Sciara del Fuoco since 1868: reconstructing the effusive activity at Stromboli volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74: 231–248.

Martelli M., Rizzo A.L., Renzulli A., Ridolfi F., Arienzo I., Rosciglione A., 2014. Noble-gas signature of magmas from a heterogeneous mantle wedge: The case of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Chemical Geology, 368: 39–53.

Mercalli G., 1881. Natura nelle eruzioni dello Stromboli ed in generale dell’attivita sismico-vulcanica delle Isole Eolie. Atti Societa Italiana Scienze Naturali, 24: 105–134.

Mercalli G., 1883. Vulcani e Fenomeni Vulcanici. In: Negri G., Stoppani A., Mercalli G. (eds), Geologia d’Italia, 3: 217–218.

Metrich N., Bertagnini A., Di Muro A., 2010. Conditions of magma storage, degassing and ascent at Stromboli: new insights into the volcano plumbing system with inferences on the eruptive dynamics. Journal of Petrology, 51: 603–626.

Milano G., Vilardo G., Luongo G., 1994. Continental collision and basin opening in Southern Italy: a new plate subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea? Tectonophysics, 230: 249–264.

Neri M., Lanzafame G., 2009. Structural features of the 2007 Stromboli eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 182: 137–144.

Patrick M.R., Harris A.J.L., Ripepe M., Dehn J., Rothery D., Calvari S., 2007. Strombolian explosive styles and source conditions: insights from thermal (FLIR) video. Bulletin of Volcanology, 69: 769–784.

Parfitt E.A., 2004. A discussion of the mechanisms of explosive basaltic eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 134: 77–107.

Parfitt E.A., Wilson L., 1995. Explosive volcanic eruptions – IX. The transition between Hawaiian-style lava fountaining and Strombolian explosive activity. Geophysical Journal International, 121: 226–232.

Patrick M.R., Harris A.J.L., Ripepe M., Dehn J., Rothery D.A., Calvari S., 2007. Strombolian explosive styles and source conditions: insights from thermal (FLIR) video. Bulletin of Volcanology, 69: 769–784.

Peccerillo A., Panza G., 1999. Upper mantle domains beneath central-southern Italy: petrological, geochemical and geophysical constraints. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 156: 421–443.

Petrone C.M., Braschi E., Francalanci L., 2009. Understanding the collapse–eruption link at Stromboli, Italy: A microanalytical study. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 188: 315–332.

Pichavant M., Pompilio M., D’Oriano C., Carlo I.D., 2011. Petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of a primitive pumice from Stromboli: implications for the deep feeding system. European Journal of Mineralogy, 23: 499–517.

Pistolesi M., Delle Donne D., Pioli L., Rosi M., Ripepe M., 2011. The 15 March 2007 explosive crisis at Stromboli volcano, Italy: assessing physical parameters through a multidisciplinary approach. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 116. [doi: 10.1029/2011JB008527]

Pompilio M., Bertagnini A., Metrich N., 2012. Geochemical heterogeneities and dynamics of magmas within the plumbing system of a persistently active volcano: evidence from Stromboli. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74: 881–894.

Ripepe M., Harris A.J.L., Carniel R., 2002. Thermal, seismic and infrasonic evidences of variable degassing rates at Stromboli volcano. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 118: 285–297.

Romagnoli C., Kokelaar P., Casalbore D., Chiocci F.L., 2009. Lateral collapses and active sedimentary processes on the northwestern flank of Stromboli volcano, Italy. Marine Geology, 265: 101–119.

Rosi M., Bertagnini A., Landi P., 2000. Onset of the persistent activity at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Bulletin of Volcanology, 62: 294–300.

Rosi M., Bertagnini A., Harris A.J.L., Pioli L., Pistolesi M., Ripepe M., 2006. A case history of paroxysmal explosion at Stromboli: timing and dynamics of the April 5, 2003 event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 243: 594–606.

Rosi M., Pistolesi M., Bertagnini A., Landi P., Pompilio M., Di Roberto A., 2013. Stromboli volcano, Aeolian Islands (Italy): present eruptive activity and hazards. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 37: 473–490.

Ripepe M., Rossi M., Saccorotti G., 1993. Image-processing of explosive activity at Stromboli. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 54: 335–351.

Rizzo A.L. Federico C., Inguaggiato S., Sollami A., Tantillo M., Vita F., Bellomo S., Longo M., Grassa F., Liuzzo M., 2015. The 2014 effusive eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy): Inferences from soil CO2 flux and 3He/4He ratio in thermal waters. Geophysical Research Letter [doi: 10.1002/2014GL062955].

Taddeucci J., Palladino D.M., Sottili G., Bernini D., Andronico D., Cristaldi A., 2013. Linked frequency and intensity of persistent volcanic activity at Stromboli (Italy). Geophysical Research Letters, 40. [doi: 10.1002/grl.50652]

Taddeucci J., Edmonds M., Houghton B., James M.R., Vergniolle S., 2015. Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H., Houghton B., McNutt S., Rymer S., Stix J. (eds), The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, Part 4. Elsevier Inc., chapter 27: 485–502.

Tibaldi A., 2001. Multiple sector collapses at Stromboli volcano, Italy: How they work. Bulletin of Volcanology, 63: 112–125.

Tibaldi A., Corazzato C., Apuani T., Cancelli A., 2003. Deformation at Stromboli volcano (Italy) revealed by rock mechanics and structural geology. Tectonophysics, 361: 187–204.

Tinti S., Manucci A., Pagnoni G., Armigliato A., Zaniboni F., 2005. The 30 December 2002 landslide-induced tsunamis in Stromboli: sequence of the events reconstructed from the eyewitness accounts. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 5: 763–775.

Tommassini S., Heumann A., Avanzinelli R., Francalanci L., 2007. The Fate of High-Angle Dipping Slabs in the Subduction Factory: an Integrated Trace Element and Radiogenic Isotope (U, Th, Sr, Nd, Pb) Study of Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Arc, Italy. Journal of Petrology 48: 2407–2430.

Vergniolle S., Jaupart C., 1986. Separated two-phase flow and basaltic eruptions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91: 12842–12860.

Vezzoli L., Corazzato C., 2016. Volcaniclastic dykes tell on fracturing, explosive eruption and lateral collapse at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 318: 55–72.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.7494/geotour.2016.44-45.3

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Geotourism/Geoturystyka

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en