Modelling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle – Tricopter

Jakub Źrebiec


This paper presents detailed models of small aerial unmanned vehicle’s subsystems like propeller, BLDC motor or Li–poly battery. Furthermore, more accurate dynamic model of Tricopter is described. This, multi–system model can be used to synthesize precise controller which may have the advantage in hazardous situations.

W niniejszym artykule zaprezentowano modele poszczególnych podsystemów wchodzących w skład bezzałogowych statków latających. Opisano między innymi zespół napędowy składający się z silnika bezszczotkowego (BLDC) i śmigła oraz akumulator litowo-polimerowy. Dodatkowo zaproponowano dokładniejszy model dynamiki lotu tricoptera. Przytoczone modele można wykorzystać do syntezy bardziej optymalnego regulatora, który może mieć przewagę w krytycznych sytuacjach.


UAV modelling, flight dynamics, Tricopter, BLDC, dynamika lotu, BLDC, modelowanie UAV, tricopter, bezzałogowy statek latający

Full Text:



Abe H., Murai T., Zaghib K., Vapor-grown carbon fiber anode for cylindrical lithium ion rechargeable batteries, Journal of Power Sources, 1999, Vol. 77, No. 2, pp. 110–115, DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(98)00158-X

Bose T., Airbreathing Propulsion: An Introduction, Springer, 2012, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3532-7

Chen M., Rincon-Mora G., Accurate electrical battery model capable of predicting runtime and I–V performance”, Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on 21.2 (June 2006), pp. 504–511, DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2006.874229

De S. et al., Low inductance axial flux BLDC motor drive for more electric aircraft, in: Aerospace Conference, 2011 IEEE. Mar. 2011, pp. 1–11, DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2011.5747464

Doyle M., Newman J., The use of mathematical modeling in the design of lithium/polymer battery systems, in: Electrochimica Acta, 1995, 40.13–14, International symposium on polymer electrolytes, pp. 2191–2196, DOI: 10.1016/0013-4686(95)00162-8

Dreier M.E., Introduction to Helicopter and Tiltrotor Simulation, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007

Gomadam P.M. et al., Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems, Journal of Power Sources, 2002, Vol. 110, No. 2, pp. 267–284, DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(02)00190-8

Jeon Y. et al., A new simulation model of BLDC motor with real back EMF waveform, in: Computers in Power Electronics, 2000. COMPEL 2000. The 7th Workshop on. 2000, pp. 217–220, DOI: 10.1109/CIPE.2000.904719.

Kendoul F., Fantoni I., Lozano R., Modeling and Control of a Small Autonomous Aircraft Having Two Tilting Rotors, in: Robotics, IEEE Transactions on 22.6, December 2006, pp. 1297–1302, DOI: 10.1109/TRO.2006.882956.

Martinez-Alvarado R. et al., Modeling and simulation of a propeller-engine system for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, in: Power, Electronics and Computing (ROPEC), 2013 IEEE International Autumn Meeting on. Nov. 2013, pp. 1–6, DOI: 10.1109/ROPEC.2013.6702722

Phillips W.F., Mechanics of Flight, John Wiley & Sons, 2009

Prasad G. et al., Modelling and Simulation Analysis of the Brushless DC Motor by using MATLAB, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Oct. 2012, 15

Rahimi-Eichi H., Baronti F., Chow M.-Y., Modeling and online parameter identification of Li-Polymer battery cells for SOC estimation, in: Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on. May 2012, pp. 1336–1341, DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2012.6237284

Salazar-Cruz S. et al., Real-Time Control of a Small-Scale Helicopter Having Three Rotors, in: Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on October 2006, pp. 2924–2929, DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2006.282145

Singh Patel V., Pandey A., Modeling and Performance Analysis of PID Controlled BLDC Motor and Different Schemes of PWM Controlled BLDC Motor, in: International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Apr. 2013

The MathWorks Inc. 6DOF (Quaternion). 2015, (visited on 04/08/2015)

The MathWorks Inc. Battery. 2015. URL:

powersys/ref/battery.html (visited on 04/08/2015)

Yao L.W. et al., Modeling of lithium-ion battery using MATLAB/simulink, in: Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013 – 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE. Nov. 2013, pp. 1729–1734, DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699393

Yoo D.-W. et al., Dynamic modeling and control system design for Tri-Rotor UAV, in: Systems and Control in Aeronautics and Astronautics (ISSCAA), 2010 3rd International Symposium on. June 2010, pp. 762–767, DOI: 10.1109/ISSCAA.2010.5632868.

Źrebiec J., Modelling and control of Tricopter – an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Master of science thesis, AGH, Kraków 2015

Źrebiec J., Włodarz R., Laboratory model of Tricopter, Bachelors thesis, AGH, Kraków 2013, p. 16



  • There are currently no refbacks.