Effect of Particle Size of a Powder upon the Properties and Microstructure of Boron-modified Fe-Ni-Mo-Cu Sinters


  • Małgorzata Perek-Nowak AGH University of Krakow, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0323-1624
  • Magdalena Majchrowska AGH University of Krakow, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  • Joanna Karwan-Baczewska AGH University of Krakow, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5367-7248
  • Mario Rosso Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino TO, Italy




The article discusses the effect of different particle fractions of prealloyed iron powder on the microstructure, density and hardness of sintered material. Each particle fraction (apart from 160–200 µm, which is a trace fraction) was modified with boron, its contents being, respectively, 0.2 wt.%, 0.4 wt.% and 0.6 wt.%. Next, the powder mixtures were pressed under a pressure of 600 MPa, and the final compacts were subject to sintering at 1200°C for 60 min in a hydrogen atmosphere. It was observed that the higher values of density and hardness were found in samples made from finer fractions of powder. A higher homogeneity of the microstructure and the highest degree of compactness was obtained in sinters from powder of 40–56 µm particle size, with 0.4 wt.% boron. Due to the use of small particle fractions of prealloyed powder, a higher degree of compactness in sinters was obtained with lower boron content. Also indicated was which particle fraction of Fe-Ni-Mo-Cu powder should be applied to obtain density in sinters with boron addition equal to almost 100% of the relative density of the analyzed alloy. The presented studies have both scientific and technological aspects.



Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Joanna Karwan-Baczewska, AGH University of Krakow, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland

Professor, DSc PhD Eng

Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals

Department of Materials Science and Non-Ferrous Metals Engineering


Madan D.S. & German R.M. (1986). Enhanced sintering of iron alloyed with B, C, P, Mo, Ni. Proceedings of International PM Conference, Germany, Düsseldorf, 2, 1223–1226.

German R.M., Hwang K.S. & Madan D.S. (1987). Analysis of Fe-Mo-B Sintered Alloys. Powder Metallurgy International, 19(2), 15–18.

Sarasola M., Tojal C. & Castro F. (2004). Study of boron behavior during sintering of Fe/Mo/B/C alloys to near full density. Euro PM2004 Conference Proceedings, Austria, Vienna 17–21.10.2004, 3, 319–326.

Sarasola M., Gómez-Acebo T. & Castro F. (2004). Liquid generation during sintering of Fe-3.5%Mo powder compacts with elemental boron addition. Acta Materialia, 52, 4615–4622. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2004.06.018.

Bolina R. & German R.M. (2004). Supersolidus sintering of boron doped stainless steel powder compacts. EuroPM 2004, Austria, Vienna 17–21.10.2004, 3, 341–348.

Sarasola M., Gómez-Acebo T. & Castro F. (2005). Microstructural development during liquid phase sintering of Fe and Fe-Mo alloys containing elemental boron additions. Powder Metallurgy, 48(1), 59–67. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1179/003258905X37558.

Karwan-Baczewska J. & Onderka B. (2017). Sintering prealloyed powders Fe-Ni-Cu-Mo Modified by boron base on thermodynamic investigations. In: L. Dobrzański (Ed.), Powder Metallurgy – Fundamentals and Case Studies, IntechOpen, 3, 29–53. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/66875 .

Dudrová E., Selecká M., Bureš R. & Kabátová M. (1997). Effect of boron addition on microstructure and properties of sintered Fe-1.5Mo powder materials. ISIJ International, 37(1), 59–64. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.37.59.

Chawla N. & Deng X. (2005). Microstructure and mechanical behavior of porous sintered steels. Materials Science and Engineering A, 390(1–2), 98–112. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2004.08.046.

Karwan-Baczewska J. (1996). Boron influence on the liquid phase sintering and mechanical properties of P/M Distaloy alloys. Advanced Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, 3, (11-15)–(11-27).

Molinari A., Gialanella S., Straffelini G., Pieczonka T. & Kazior J. (2000). Dilatometry study of the sinteringbBehavior of boron-alloyed Fe-1.5 pct Mo powder. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 31, 1497–1506. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-000-0160-9.

Toennes C., Ernst P., Meyer G. & German R.M. (1992). Full density sintering by boron addition in a martensitic stainless steel. Advanced in Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, 3, 371–381.

Nakamura M. & Kamada K. (1991). Influence of the addition of boron on the sintering temperature and the mechanical properties of P/M type stainless steels. Journal of the Japan Society of Powder Metallurgy, 38(1), 22–26. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2497/jjspm.38.22.

Kuroki H.A. (2001). A review on the effect and behaviour of boron in sintered iron and steel. Journal of the Japan Society of Powder Metallurgy, 48(4), 293–304. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2497/jjspm.48.293.

Karwan-Baczewska J. (2001). The properties and structure of boron modified P/M iron-molybdenum alloys. Archives of Metallurgy, 46(4), 439–445.

Karwan-Baczewska J. (2008). Spiekane stopy na bazie proszku żelaza modyfikowane borem [Sintered alloys based on iron powder with boron]. Kraków: AGH Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne.

Karwan-Baczewska J. (2015). Processing and properties of Distaloy SA sintered alloys with boron and carbon. Archives Metallurgy and Materials, 60(1), 41–45. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2015-0006.

Karwan-Baczewska J. (2011). The properties of Fe-Ni-Mo-Cu-B materials produced via liquid phase sintering. Archives Metallurgy and Materials, 56(3), 789–796. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10172-011-0087-8.

Perek-Nowak M. & Karwan-Baczewska J. (2017). Elastic properties and structural observations of Distaloy SA powder sintered with boron and carbon. Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering, 43(2), 107–115. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7494/mafe.2017.43.2.107.

Sulima I., Jaworska L. & Karwan-Baczewska J. (2015). Effect of boron sinter-aid on the microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel-TiB2 composites. Archives Metallurgy and Materials, 60(4), 2619–2624. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2015-0423.

Karwan-Baczewska J., Dymkowski T., Sobiecki J.R. & Formański T. (2010). Processing and surface properties of based on iron sintered alloys after plasma nitriding treatment. Archives Metallurgy and Materials, 55(2), 383–389.

Karwan-Baczewska J. (2000). Influence of boron on the structure and mechanical properties of sintered and ion-nitrided distaloy alloys. International Journal of Materials and Product Technology, 15, 193–204. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMPT.2000.001243.

Karwan-Baczewska J. & Rosso M. (2001). Effect of boron on microstructure and mechanical properties of PM sintered and nitrided steels. Powder Metallurgy, 44(3), 221–227. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1179/003258901666374.




How to Cite

Perek-Nowak, M., Majchrowska, M., Karwan-Baczewska, J., & Rosso, M. (2023). Effect of Particle Size of a Powder upon the Properties and Microstructure of Boron-modified Fe-Ni-Mo-Cu Sinters. Journal of Casting &Amp; Materials Engineering, 7(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.7494/jcme.2023.7.1.1